Introduction of the five main mountains in Taiwan and the outline of their distribution

“Introduction of the five main mountains in Taiwan and the outline of their distribution”

        Around six million years ago, the northern Luzon Arc located at the west side of Philippine Sea Plate started to hit the Eurasia continent near the current Taiwan Island. It caused the sedimentary rock and the volcanic arc on the continental shelf near Taiwan to be pushed into each other. The upheaval caused them to be exposed out from the sea from south to north. This is called the orogeny of these folded mountains. Three million years ago, the overarching Central Range, the low and gentle hills and plains in the west, and the volcanic arc that is the core of coastal mountains in the east combined together. Taiwan Island was then formally created, and this is why Taiwan is a narrow and long island with intensive high mountains and a high mountain distribution stretching in the middle of Taiwan from north to south. In terms of the overall range and extensions, it can be generally classified into five main mountains stretching from north to south: the Central Range, the Xueshan Range, the Yushan Range, the Alishan Range and the Coastal Range.

“Introduction of animals and plants from low to high altitude”
        Although Taiwan is a small island with total area of around 36,000 square kilometers, it stretches from the subtropics into the tropics, with salient relief and high mountains; the altitude range is around 4,000 meters. Taiwan possesses a variety of ecosystems and cultivates various ecosystems and biological species, such as estuarine, marine, marsh, lake, river, forest, and farmland ecosystems. The forest types are mainly affected by altitude, and include subtropical evergreen forest, warm temperate broad-leaved forest, mixed forest, needle-leaved forest, and bryophyte or grassland on the alpine belt above 3,500 meters. Animal diversity is also significant, and includes mammals such as the Formosan Reeve's muntjac, goat, Formosan sambar deer, pangolin and Formosan macaque; birds such as the Swinhoe's pheasant, crested serpent eagle, fairy pitta, Taiwan blue magpie, and collared scops owl; amphibians and reptiles such as the emerald green tree frog, Moltrechti's green tree frog, Sauter's grass lizard, and japalura. You can also see jumbo dragonfly, damselfly, golden birdwing, and the ghost stag beetle. The environments created by different kinds of forest are precious habitats for various plants, animals, and funguses in Taiwan.

“Relationship between Taiwan's aboriginal peoples and mountains”
Mountains seem eternal, and for Taiwan's aboriginal peoples who have been living in the mountains for generation after generation, co-existence with mountains and forest is the origin of traditional living patterns and fairy tales that have been created over generations. The ridge mountains of Taiwan have nurtured the aboriginal tribes and their cultural heritage and development are closely related to the mountains. From hunting trails, marriage paths and trading channels that have been expanded from early living areas, you will find many world-class pre-historical sites and many historical stories that took place here in the beautiful ridge mountains.

“Classic travelling route”
1North Pingtung tour/ one-day trip
2Warriors in battle/ one-day trip
3Seediq + north Nenggao + Qilaishan South Peak, one of the 100 peaks/ three-day trip
4Walking around Dulan/ half-day trip or one-day trip
5Ceroh tribe- dining table on the huge footprints in the paddy fields
6Kunuan tribe- dining table in the forest accompanied by pounding
7Cilamitay tribe- dining table on the terraced field (Hara high-land rice)
8Yongkang tribe- dining table for hunters
9Kamcing tribe- dining table surrounded by swings (millet)
10Tafalong tribe- dining table in the field (red glutinous rice)
11Appointment under the rainbow- Atayal coming-of-age ceremony tour/ two-day trip
12Half-day trip in Tabuk tribe- strolling on the deer-searching trail and visiting the secret place of pinewood carpet
13Half-day trip in Sqoyaw tribe- tribe guided tour in depth and a visit to hunter’s trail
14Hehuan Mountain high mountain forest ecology- a three-day trip for rhododendrons in spring
15Hiking on historic trail and appreciating autumn silver grass- two-day trip in Su'ao Lakeshore dual springs
16Two-day trip for Long Dong Wan Cape Trail and silver grass appreciation at Caoling Historic Trail
17Walami Trail ecological tour study camp
18Visiting Tsou tribe in Alishan- three-day trip to Pnguu Tashan Trail
19Tsou tribe 169- a three-day trip visiting Tapangu and Niaucna tribes
20Niahosa hunter legend
21Ecology Seeing on Xinzhongheng Highway
22Syuejian ecotourism/ Nan-Sun Village in Tai'an Township
23Dali-Datong Trail tour (hiking trail)
24Wuling ecological travelling